Trichomoniasis is a specific lesion of the urogenital organs caused by a vaginal trichomonas (Trichomonas vaginalis) – the simplest single-celled parasite belonging to the flagellate class is called genitourinary trichomoniasis. This term is legalized by the International Classification of Diseases of the 9th Revision (M., 1984) instead of the various names used in the past.
Some patients also use other names: trichomoniasis, trichomonads, trichomoniasis, trichomonas, trichamonases, trichomanases, trichamonads, trichomonads. We will use the term trichomoniasis.
Trichomoniasis is a systemic infectious-inflammatory disease of the genitourinary system, which is caused by a simple trichomonas. To date, it is recognized as the first in prevalence among typical sexually transmitted infections and diseases of the genitourinary system.
There is trichomoniasis several times more often than chlamydia, syphilis, and HIV infection. All this suggests that the treatment of trichomoniasis is an important and urgent task.
Many researchers argue that the incidence of trichomoniasis in men and women is approximately the same and is about 10% of the adult population, but in men the disease is often transient, asymptomatic, is more difficult to diagnose, and therefore is much less likely to be registered than in women. For example, in England in 1975 the ratio of patients with trichomoniasis and gonorrhea of women was 1: 1.14, men – 1: 23.7, respectively. Perhaps this is affected by a different approach to diagnosing trichomoniasis in different countries and other factors.
Three types of trichomonads are parasitic in humans:
An important feature of trichomonads is the ability to phagocytosis “swallowing” of microorganisms, including gonococci. However, studies have not confirmed the survival in Trichomonas chlamydia, and the average survival time of mycoplasmas and ureaplasma was about 3 hours. Trichomonases quickly lose vitality outside the human body. A prerequisite for life is the presence of moisture, when dried, they quickly die. Trichomonads are not resistant to high temperature (more than 40 C), direct sunlight, the effects of antiseptic agents.
Features of the pathogen
Outside the human body is able to live no more than a few hours, provided moisture is maintained.
Quickly dies when dried, exposed to direct sunlight, heated.
It is able to escape from the supervision of the immune system, disguised as host cells.
Other bacteria can penetrate into the trichomonads, where they find protection from the immune system and drugs. And due to its mobility, it is able to bring infectious agents of other sexually transmitted infections into the upper parts of the genitourinary system.
In turn, sexually transmitted infections can create more favorable conditions for the development of trichomonads. The most favorable conditions for this parasite: anaerobic environment, pH 5.2 – 6.2.
It can damage the epithelial barrier, which reduces its protective function, thereby facilitating the infection of other STIs, including HIV (human immunodeficiency virus).
Causes of Trichomoniasis
Genitourinary Trichomoniasis is an infection that is usually transmitted sexually and is often combined with gonococci, chlamydia, ureaplasmas, Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida fungi.
The source of infection is only people with clinically expressed or asymptomatic trichomoniasis. As a rule, infection occurs during sexual intercourse. Rectal and orogenital contacts do not lead to infection, as vaginal trichomonads do not survive in the oral cavity and rectum.
Out-of-the-box infection is extremely rare, mainly in girls. It is possible because parasites retain their activity for a short time in lumps of mucus or pus. Indirect infection through contaminated patients with hygiene items, underwear and medical instruments occurs under the same conditions as non-sexual contamination with gonorrhea.
The waterway of infection is now completely rejected. As an extremely rare exception, it is possible to infect women when bathing together in a bath with slightly mineralized water (salt concentration close to an isotonic solution).
Trichomoniasis is a unique disease in the full sense of the word. On the one hand, it occurs three times more often than syphilis, chlamydia and HIV. But, on the other hand, it often remains without due attention, both from the side of doctors, and from the side of the patients themselves.
Often a woman undergoes long-term treatment of ureaplasmosis-mycoplasmosis, chlamydia, candidiasis, dysbiosis, just “leukocytosis in smears,” which exhausts her body and suppresses defenses, but complaints about periodic unpleasant discharge causing discomfort continue. In communication with such a woman suddenly pops in the information that in the smears sometimes found trichomonads, which then disappear, then appear again. Was the woman’s partner examined? From the answers of many women you will find out that most often the sexual partners remain aloof from any surveys. And, on the contrary, where the partner’s examination is not rational, he is sent to dozens of tests and conducts unreasonable treatment.
Trichomoniasis is a typical infection that is transmitted only through the sexual way, which means it is a small venereal disease. If a person has been diagnosed with Trichomonas and the diagnosis of Trichomoniasis is correct, it is necessary to understand that infection has sexually transmitted, so the sexual partner (s) should be examined and treated. Most cases of trichomoniasis in men are not diagnosed! Unprotected sex should be stopped for the period of treatment. Most often both partners need treatment.
Prevalence of trichomoniasis
In the world, according to the WHO, trichomoniasis annually affects 170-180 million people, which significantly exceeds the incidence of gonorrhea and chlamydia. In the United States, up to 10 million people are infected with Trichomonas, and 11 million in Europe. More than 150 million people are infected in developing countries. These indicators can be much higher (according to other sources, more than 270 million people are infected in the world). In fact, this is the only venereal disease that is not subject to registration and reporting in most of the world’s countries.
The prevalence of the disease depends on the socio-economic conditions of the population and the availability of timely high-quality medical care, good hygiene, and the level of education of people. For example, in the US, black people are more likely to be infected with trichomoniasis. Throughout the world, the level of patients with trichomoniasis in adolescents is increasing, because many of them have an active sex life.
Trichomonas infection occurs in 29-84% of women (depending on the region), and half of these women have no complaints and signs of disease. Women who have casual sex, suffer from trichomoniasis 3.5 times more often than women who have a single sexual partner.
With regard to trichomoniasis in men, there are a lot of gaps in the medical literature: a trichomonas infection in men is almost not studied. The last serious publications on this topic were about 50 years ago.
Trichomonas infection is caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Vaginal Trichomonas refers to the simplest, flagellate class, the genus Trichomonads, and is a mobile unicellular organism.
Trichomonas are not just a parasite, but a real predator that absorbs bacteria (for example, gonococci), epithelial cells (vaginas, urethras) and red blood cells (erythrocytes). It is also absorbed by the protective cells of the body – macrophages.
The causative agent of trichomoniasis was first detected in vaginal smears in 1836 by the French doctor Alfred Donne. Initially, he suggested a connection between pathological secretions in women and this microorganism, but then abandoned this idea. For 80 years, vaginal Trichomonas were considered harmless living beings, until in 1916 O. Hyun from Germany confirmed the connection between the parasite and trichomoniasis.
Despite the fact that Trichomonas is a unicellular organism, its structure is rather complicated. The form of the trichomonads is usually pear-shaped, but when attached and interacted with the cells of the mucous membranes, they appear “tentacles” and in shape they resemble amoebas.
The genetic material of Trichomonas contains about 60,000 genes responsible for the production of proteins. On the surface of the shell, this parasite has more than 300 different proteins from ten groups of proteins. This is important to know, because it is because of so many proteins (antigens) that many serological tests, especially commercial ones, by definition of antigens and antibodies are low-sensitivity.
The energy metabolism of Trichomonases is completely dependent on carbohydrates. Trichomonads do not produce many nutrients, but they are obtained through the destruction of host cells, primarily epithelial cells.
Psychosomatic causes of sexually transmitted diseases. Syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes, trichomoniasis, AIDS
Syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes, trichomoniasis, AIDS
Feeling of guilt on sexual grounds and the need for punishment, as well as the belief that the genitals are sinful or unclean, in other words, dislike of one’s genitals is the main reason for the occurrence of sexually transmitted diseases. With such a negative and aggressive attitude towards our sexual organs and manifestations of our sexuality, we literally draw all these problems into our lives.
I will even say more, it is the belief in the sinfulness of sex and the punishing God, the sense of shame and the need for sexual punishment in a large number of people that have created all the microorganisms and viruses that currently exist that cause venereal diseases.
Let’s make an excursus into history. Prior to the Renaissance, the church and the Inquisition strictly followed the mores of their flock, the observance of the seventh commandment of God, and did not tolerate sexual debauchery. With the advent of the Renaissance the sexual revolution began. Then there was syphilis. It is believed that this Columbus brought him from the New World. But Columbus has nothing to do with it. Just people, not getting rid of feelings of guilt and self-punishment and not having learned the correct sexual behavior, gave way out to forbidden feelings. The church could no longer restrain, as before, human passions. And then the collective subconscious mind creates a disease that people perceive as punishment for their sins.
But centuries pass. Medicine has learned to suppress syphilis and other venereal diseases with the help of antibiotics. It is to suppress, not treat, because the causes are not eliminated. And the reasons – this is lecherous behavior and a sense of guilt on sexual grounds.
In the sixties of the XX century, another sexual revolution is taking place. It is accompanied by a narcotic boom. But the thoughts and feelings of people in relation to each other and to the world around have changed little. And here the collective subconscious mind creates a new disease-punishment – AIDS. This disease is of a viral origin and no longer suits the medicines of modern medicine. But scientists continue to spend huge money on the creation of a medicine against AIDS. And I am sure that such a medicine will be created. But at what cost? And with what consequences? It will not heal – it will suppress the disease, and together with the illness – the entire body. And then it will lead to even more serious illnesses. But this can not continue indefinitely.
The medicine against any disease was created long ago – it’s purity of thoughts! Only this medicine is concluded not in a pill that people dream of getting from a doctor, but in ourselves.
It is very important to teach a person the right attitude to sex from the very childhood. And this training should not be based on the concepts of sin and mud. It is important to correctly teach yourself to treat yourself, to the opposite sex, to people in general and to the world around you. And the best teachers in this are parents. That is, their relationship to each other and to sex.
In matters of sexual education, I always liked the approach of the ancient Chinese – the Taoists. They considered sexual intercourse to be a part of the general order and harmony in nature and never connected it with a sense of sin or a violation of morality. Their special emotional attitude towards love and sex, together with the total lack of punishment, led to the fact that the sexual life of Ancient China was generally healthy, remarkably free from pathological abnormalities and disorders.
Often parents inspire the child with forbidden thoughts about his sexuality, not suspecting the danger of such prohibitions. And the danger lies in the fact that the sexual forbidden feeling, breaking out, becomes uncontrollable and leads the person to illness or disappointment. Sexual education should be based not on a sense of guilt and punishment, but on the notion of impeccability.
A young girl turned to me for help. She had problems in sexual intercourse with her husband. She could not relax during intercourse. With my help, she established a connection with the subconscious. It turned out that a strong rejection of men appeared after she was tried to rape her several years ago.
The traumatic situation in her past was found. We changed our attitude to it. The girl was able to relax. But I decided to go even further. I was just wondering what had led to the situation with the attempted rape. If we proceed from the fact that we create all the situations in our lives for ourselves, then how did this girl attract rapists into her life?
It turned out that since childhood she has received only negative attitudes towards sex. Besides, she was always afraid that she could be robbed of her innocence. The word is “innocence”. It already hides a sense of guilt.
Syphilis is an infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum (pale treponema). Initially, syphilis affects the area at the site of the introduction of pale treponema (genitalia, pharynx, rectum). After a while, syphilis can become a systemic infection that affects other organs.
Before the discovery of antibiotics, syphilis was a widespread and incurable disease. After the discovery of penicillin in 1940, the situation changed. Early forms of syphilis are now effectively treated, late forms are rare, the overall incidence of syphilis has significantly decreased.
There are three stages of syphilis:
Primary syphilis occurs 1–12 weeks after infection and manifests as a solid, painless ulcer at the site of the pathogen (most commonly the genitals, rarely the pharynx, rectum). In addition, the nearest lymph nodes (inguinal, cervical) increase.
Secondary syphilis occurs after about 6–24 weeks. There is a rash all over the body (including the palms and soles), wetting growths in the anus. Eruptions in secondary syphilis are contagious.
Tertiary syphilis develops not in every syphilis patient in the absence of treatment, but only in a third of patients. Currently, this stage of syphilis is rare. With tertiary syphilis, there are irreversible changes in the nervous system and internal organs.
In order to confirm primary syphilis, it is possible to take material from an ulcer to identify pale treponema. Diagnosis of all stages of syphilis is based on blood tests to identify antibodies to pale treponema.
The treatment of syphilis is long enough (from several weeks to several months) and reduces to the administration of antibiotic injections. Primary and secondary syphilis is completely curable. The defeat of organs with tertiary syphilis is often irreversible even after treatment.
Trichomoniasis is an infection caused by the simplest Trichomonas vaginalis (Trichomonas). Infection is possible only with vaginal intercourse. Infection with oral or anal sex is very unlikely.
Trichomoniasis in women is most often manifested by vulvovaginitis (inflammation of the vagina and external genitalia) and causes:
Foamy discharge from the vagina
irritation, itching of the vulva
pain when urinating
In men, trichomoniasis is very often asymptomatic. Sometimes trichomonads in men are the cause of urethritis (inflammation of the urethra) and are manifested:
incisor with urination
secretions from the penis
To confirm the diagnosis, a swab is taken from the vagina; from the urethra) to identify trichomonads.
Treatment of trichomoniasis reduces to the appointment of drugs that effectively kill Trichomonas. As a rule, these drugs are prescribed inside.
WHEN YOU NEED TO APPLY TO THE DOCTOR
For a long time, syphilis was a dangerous disease that could not be cured. Modern medicine has all the means to completely cure the disease. The sooner a diagnosis is made and the disease is detected, the easier it will be to undergo treatment. Infection with syphilis occurs not only during sexual contact, but also when using the same household items with a patient (toothbrush, towel, kitchen utensils, etc.). Therefore, periodic rapid blood test for syphilis is recommended for each person.
Medical capsule with cap
During infection, there is an increase in lymph nodes in the inguinal area, the appearance of sores and skin rashes in the mouth and genital area. If you find the first symptoms of the disease, you should immediately consult a doctor. The examination can be anonymous in the direction of the gynecologist, urologist, proctologist, venereologist or ordinary therapist. After passing the test, you should ask for a transcript of the syphilis test to the doctor.
DESIGNATION OF THE SURVEY
Often during medical examinations a doctor can prescribe a lot of laboratory tests, including a test for syphilis. Do not take such a direction as suspicion of the disease. In many spheres of public life, a certificate of absence of the disease is required.
Registration in the hostel
Admission to the workplace for health workers, food service employees, etc.
Donation of organs or blood
Patients with active sex life
Presence of clinical symptoms
End of treatment for syphilis
As a primary study, as a rule, one of the nonspecific (non–treponemal) tests is prescribed. The reliability of such tests is relatively low and the patient can get a false positive result. In this case, a re–study will be performed using a specific (treponemal) test. Positive or negative analysis should be considered by the attending physician.
PREPARATION FOR THE TEST
Before donating blood from a finger or vein for laboratory testing, it is necessary to adhere to certain rules, so that the analysis is as reliable as possible. Do not eat food, tea or coffee 8–12 hours before taking blood. During the day before going to the laboratory, it is not recommended to use sharp, fatty, fried, salted or smoked foods. Antibiotics and other medications can also distort the test. All the substances taken should be reported to the doctor in charge. Perhaps he would recommend refraining from taking the test within 1 or several weeks. A blood sample can be taken in a private laboratory, a district polyclinic or a health care provider at home.
In any case, sterile equipment and disposable gloves are used.
Express analysis for syphilis can be done independently at home. Pharmacies offer special tests with detailed instructions in Russian. The test result is known in 10 minutes. One red strip on the indicator is a negative analysis for syphilis, two strips are positive. The reliability of such tests is not high enough and can not serve as a confirmation of the diagnosis.
HOW TO UNDERSTAND THE RESULT OF NON–SPECIFIC SURVEY
Patients often feel insecure after the test. To hand over a blood and not to be able to make decoding of analyzes on a syphilis independently, certainly, is unpleasant. Interpretation of the blood test requires medical education and appropriate qualification of the doctor, as well as consideration of all factors affecting the result. Can the patient independently read the results of his analysis for syphilis? After seeing the report of the laboratory, you can draw simple conclusions, but the doctor must confirm or deny the diagnosis.
The test with toluidine red is prescribed not for diagnosis, but for testing the effectiveness of the treatment of the disease. The study shows how much the amount of antibodies has changed compared to the previous analysis. If the figure has decreased, then the treatment is successful. The analysis is carried out during the treatment several times as prescribed by the doctor. After 3 months after completion of the procedures, a control test is conducted.
Doctor dermatovenereologist. Candidate of Medical Sciences, doctor of the 1st category.
ENTRY FOR RECEPTION
Syphilis is one of the most well-known sexually transmitted diseases. The disease is known since ancient times, first described in the middle of the Middle Ages. The cause of it is the bacterium Treponema pallidum (pale treponema). It is worth noting that the probability of infection with syphilis, even after a single contact with an infected patient is high and ranges from 30% to 50%.
Ways of infection with syphilis:
during sex (vaginal, anal or oral);
from mother to child during pregnancy, infection rarely occurs when breastfeeding;
when the blood of an infected person is transfused, as well as when using common syringes, razors, toothbrushes;
The household way of infection with syphilis is extremely improbable, since pale treponema quickly dies outside the human body. However, infection is possible with prolonged, close contact with a sick person, when from the affected areas pale treponema can get on dishes or towels.
Depending on the stage of syphilis, the mucous membranes and skin, bone, internal organs, nervous system are affected. In the medical center “EVROMEDPRESTIZH” there is the possibility of diagnosing and treating syphilis from the earliest stages. If you have any symptoms or suspect a possible infection, you should consult a doctor who will prescribe tests to identify the cause of the illness. With the confirmation of the disease, a modern treatment will be prescribed, which will allow to get rid of the disease and avoid complications.
Service name Cost
Reception of the doctor-dermatovenerologist, KMN, medical-diagnostic, outpatient 2 100 rub.
Generalization of the results of the examination and preparation of an individual treatment program 2 degree of complexity 1 000 rub.
Disinfection of skin and treatment with specific means / 1 session 170 rub.
Removal of genital warts / per zone 0.5cm * 0.5cm 830 rub.
Dermatoscopy 800 rub.
See the whole price list
SYMPHY SYMPTOMS AND STAGES
Primary syphilis occurs several weeks after infection. The incubation period of the disease is about three to six weeks. The first symptom of the disease is the appearance of a solid chancre. This is a new growth in the place where the bacterium has got into the body (most often – on the mucous membrane). Hard chancre is a round, dense ulcer with a diameter of up to 2 centimeters. It is painless, does not bleed and does not excrete pus. A week after the appearance of a solid chancre, lymph nodes along with the affected area increase. At this stage, the difficulty in diagnosing syphilis is that the primary symptoms may not manifest themselves or pass unnoticed (in the case, for example, if the chancre is located deep in the vaginal wall). In addition, there is a possibility of secondary infection, infection of the ulcer. In this case, around the solid chancre there is redness and swelling, pus begins to stand out. However, the analysis of secretions does not always make it possible to distinguish a pale treponema, which also makes it difficult to correctly diagnose. A few months after infection, syphilis passes into the second stage. At this point, the primary symptoms disappear, the scar remains in place of the solid chancre. The second stage is characterized by vascular changes in the deep layers of the skin and the appearance of a rash of generalized type. The rash may appear on the mucous membranes, face, body of a sick person, palms and feet. Eruptions of dark red color gradually lose saturation, the rash does not itch and does not itch. In some cases, individual elements of the rash can merge and expand on the mucous membranes, in the armpit and anus area, under the mammary glands. Such rashes are called condylomas and are characterized by increased infectiousness. The appearance of a rash may be accompanied by fever and general poor health, malaise, there is a sore throat, unilateral angina develops.
At this stage, the analysis of scrapings can reveal the causative agent of syphilis and establish an accurate diagnosis. The secondary period of the illness lasts several weeks. In the absence of proper treatment flows into a latent form, which can last for years. In this case, the patient remains contagious to others.
Approximately a third of patients have syphilis in the third stage. This stage is characterized by severe damage to internal organs and vital systems. At this stage of syphilis, the rash (tertiary syphilis) looks like dense, painless tubercles. Often necrosis occurs in their center, after which a coarse embryo is formed. Similar rashes appear not only on the skin, but also on any internal organs, affecting the nervous and bone-cartilaginous tissue (until the appearance of holes). The defeat of the nervous system and brain leads to various paralysis and cuts, there are problems with the mental state of the patient.